In this guide, we are about to see how to create an encrypted file system in Red Hat Enterprise Linux and it’s variants.

Hence I’m testing this before implementing in Production we are about to use a physical disk /dev/sdb with 20 GB in size. This will differ in your setup make sure to choose the correct disk to avoid any accidental encryption on any data disks.

# fdisk -l /dev/sdb

[root@rhel7 ~]# fdisk -l /dev/sdb 
Disk /dev/sdb: 21.5 GB, 21474836480 bytes, 41943040 sectors Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
To start with the encryption we need to run with below luksFormat command.
# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sdb
[root@rhel7 ~]# cryptsetup luksFormat /dev/sdb
This will overwrite data on /dev/sdb irrevocably.
Are you sure? (Type uppercase yes): YES
Enter passphrase: 
Verify passphrase: 
[root@rhel7 ~]#

Once the disk encrypted using luksFormat we need to open the filesystem to use it. myfiles is just a name you can choose your own.

# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb myfiles

Even this not under a logical volume management it will be treated as a mapper device.

# ls -lthr /dev/mapper/myfiles

[root@rhel7 ~]# 
[root@rhel7 ~]# cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sdb myfiles
Enter passphrase for /dev/sdb: 
[root@rhel7 ~]# 
[root@rhel7 ~]# ls -lthr /dev/mapper/myfiles 
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Jan 1 11:56 /dev/mapper/myfiles -> ../dm-9
[root@rhel7 ~]#

Create the filesystem on the encrypted disk.

# mkfs -t ext4 /dev/mapper/myfiles
[root@rhel7 ~]# mkfs -t ext4 /dev/mapper/myfiles
mke2fs 1.42.9 (28-Dec-2013)
Filesystem label=
OS type: Linux
Block size=4096 (log=2)
Fragment size=4096 (log=2)
Stride=0 blocks, Stripe width=0 blocks
1310720 inodes, 5242368 blocks
262118 blocks (5.00%) reserved for the super user
First data block=0
Maximum filesystem blocks=2153775104
160 block groups
32768 blocks per group, 32768 fragments per group
8192 inodes per group
Superblock backups stored on blocks: 
32768, 98304, 163840, 229376, 294912, 819200, 884736, 1605632, 2654208, 

Allocating group tables: done 
Writing inode tables: done 
Creating journal (32768 blocks): done
Writing superblocks and filesystem accounting information: done

[root@rhel7 ~]#

Create a directory and mount the created file system and mount it.

# mkdir /myfiles
# mount /dev/mapper/myfiles /myfiles
# df -h /myfiles

[root@rhel7 ~]# mkdir /myfiles
[root@rhel7 ~]# 
[root@rhel7 ~]# mount /dev/mapper/myfiles /myfiles
[root@rhel7 ~]# 
[root@rhel7 ~]# df -h /myfiles
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/myfiles 20G 45M 19G 1% /myfiles
[root@rhel7 ~]#

Above steps are non-persistent during reboot. To make the encrypted filesystem persistent during reboot we need to follow with below three steps.

Create a file with random data to make it as key for the encrypted mount point. Make sure to change the ownership and permission for the created key as 600. Moreover never put this file inside the encrypted filesystem which you have created.

# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/tmp/crypt_file bs=4096 count=1
# chmod 600 /tmp/crypt_file
# mv /tmp/crypt_file /etc/

[root@rhel7 ~]# dd if=/dev/urandom of=/tmp/crypt_file bs=4096 count=1
1+0 records in
1+0 records out
4096 bytes (4.1 kB) copied, 0.000410369 s, 10.0 MB/s
[root@rhel7 ~]# chmod 600 /tmp/crypt_file
[root@rhel7 ~]# ls -lthr /tmp/crypt_file 
-rw-------. 1 root root 4.0K Jan 1 11:59 /tmp/crypt_file
[root@rhel7 ~]# mv /tmp/crypt_file /etc/
[root@rhel7 ~]#

Add the luks Key by pointing yo created random data file.

# cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sdb /etc/crypt_file

[root@rhel7 ~]# cryptsetup luksAddKey /dev/sdb /etc/crypt_file
Enter any existing passphrase: 
[root@rhel7 ~]#

Create an entry in crypttab and fstab.

vi /etc/crypttab

myfiles /dev/sdb /etc/crypt_file

vi /etc/fstab

/dev/mapper/myfiles /myfiles ext4 defaults 0 0

Filesystem successfully mounted after the reboot.

[root@rhel7 ~]# uptime
12:17:08 up 0 min, 2 users, load average: 1.10, 0.28, 0.10
[root@rhel7 ~]# 
[root@rhel7 ~]# df -h /myfiles/
Filesystem Size Used Avail Use% Mounted on
/dev/mapper/myfiles 20G 45M 19G 1% /myfiles
[root@rhel7 ~]#

That’s it we have done with creating an Encrypted file System and made it as persistent mount point during reboots.

Babin Lonston
Overall 13+ Years of experience in IT field, 7+ years of experience in Linux administration with Virtualization & Cloud technologies. Love documentation and being Numismatics for a long time.

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