Installing and Configuring Virtual Data Optimizer (VDO) on CentOS7


Virtual Data Optimizer (VDO) is a block virtualization technology that provides transparent deduplication of data. By eliminating redundant chunks of data, VDO can greatly reduce actual used disk capacity. The CentOS implementation of VDO is quite good, but there are some caveats to be aware of, especially when you want filesystems on VDO to come up automatically at boot. If you do it wrong, your system will not boot! So make sure to read all the way to the end to learn how to avoid ending up in this situation!

VDO consists of two kernel modules and two commands:

Kernel Modules

  • kvdo – This module loads into the Device Manager layer and provides a block storage volume for deduplication.
  • uds – This module is responsible for communication with the Universal Deduplication Index on the VDO disk.


  • vdo – This command is used to create, remove, start, and stop VDO volumes, as well as performing other configuration changes.
  • vdostats – This command is used to report on various aspects of VDO volumes, including effective reduction and physical volume utilization. Think of this as ‘df’ for VDO capacity.


Step 1: Install VDO

The first thing to do is to install the VDO kernel modules, commands, and dependencies.

# yum -y install vdo
   vdo.x86_64 0:     

Dependency Installed:
   PyYAML.x86_64 0:3.10-11.el7  kmod-kvdo.x86_64 0:  libyaml.x86_64 0:0.1.4-11.el7_0


Note that installing VDO also installed several dependencies, namely PyYAML, kmod-kvdo, and libyaml; the YAML packages are required for VDO because the VDO configuration file is written in YAML.

Step 2: Create a VDO Device

Make sure that you have a spare disk – or at least a partition – available for use by VDO. Although it is possible to create a VDO volume on top of an LVM2 volume, you will almost certainly have boot order problems when you reboot your server. Also, one of the great benefits of VDO is that it will deduplicate data across filesystems if they are Logical Volumes on top of an LVM2 Volume Group, which is what will be demonstrated below.

In our demonstration environment, we have a 40GB spare disk called /dev/sdb:

# lsblk
sda               8:0    0   15G  0 disk 
├─sda1            8:1    0    1G  0 part /boot
└─sda2            8:2    0   14G  0 part 
  ├─centos-root 253:0    0 12.5G  0 lvm  /
  └─centos-swap 253:1    0  1.5G  0 lvm  [SWAP]
sdb               8:16   0   40G  0 disk

Next, we create the empty VDO volume on top of /dev/sdb:

# vdo create --name=vdolvm --device=/dev/sdb --vdoLogicalSize=120G --writePolicy=async
Creating VDO vdolvm
Starting VDO vdolvm
Starting compression on VDO vdolvm
VDO instance 0 volume is ready at /dev/mapper/vdolvm

Here is a breakdown of the various options above:

  • create – As it sounds, this is telling the VDO command what operation we want to do. You would use “remove” to remove the VDO volume.
  • name=vdolvm – This option tells VDO that the name we want to give to our volume is “vdolvm”. This can, of course, be any name you want to give it.
  • device=/dev/sdb – This indicates on which underlying device we want to create the VDO volume.
  • vdoLogicalSize=120G – Here we are telling VDO that the effective capacity we want to expose to the OS is 120GB. Remember from above that our physical device is only 40GB, so we are assuming that we will get at least a 3:1 reduction from deduplication. For most data, this is pretty conservative, but if your data does not deduplicate well, then your ratio should be different. Log files and other plain text files will generally deduplicate very well, and you may get 10:1 or even higher deduplication rates. But binary files, and especially pre-compressed data such as video, audio, or compressed archives, will get far less than 3:1 or even 1:1 in some cases! Do not use VDO for this type of data.
  • writePolicy=async – This indicates that writes should be sent to the physical device asynchronously. This will improve performance but may risk data loss under certain circumstances. Here is a brief description of the possible write policies for VDO:
    • sync – Writes to the VDO volume are only acknowledged after data is written to the physical device. If you are using this option, make sure your back-end storage is also synchronous, otherwise, you will lose the benefits of synchronous writes.
    • async – Writes are acknowledged after the data has been written to the cache. If the cache is not flushed prior to a device or power failure, you may experience data loss.
    • auto – In this default mode, VDO will inspect the storage device and determine if it supports flushing. If so, VDO will use async mode. If not, it will use sync mode.

Step 3: Investigate the New VDO Volume

As we saw in the output of the previous step, VDO has created a new Device Mapper device called /dev/mapper/vdolvm. When we create our volume group, this is the device we will use.

# ls -l /dev/mapper/vdolvm 
lrwxrwxrwx. 1 root root 7 Dec 17 13:56 /dev/mapper/vdolvm -> ../dm-2

Let’s see what kind of information we can get about the new volume with vdostats!

# vdostats --hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      4.0G     36.0G  10%           N/A

The –hu flag passed to vdostats is shorthand for “–human-readable” and presents the data in a format that is a bit easier to read. From this output, we can see the Device Mapper name of the device, the size of the back-end storage device, how much data is used, how much capacity is available, and the percentage of space deduplication is saving us.

At this time, since we have not written any data to the volume, the “Space saving%” field is “N/A”. When we write some data later, you will see more helpful information there.

But wait! We haven’t written any data yet, but there is already 4GB, or 10%, of the volume in use! This is because the Universal Deduplication Index has already been written to disk. This is basically a database that keeps a record of slab fingerprints and their locations. This is what makes deduplication possible. You can see, then, that using VDO either on small back-end disks or with data that does not get at least 10% deduplication will actually be less efficient than using that storage as a regular volume.

The vdostats command also has a –verbose option that gives us a lot of information about our VDO volume. It is not really practical to show that output in its entirety here, but we should at least look at a few fields with this command:

# vdostats --verbose /dev/mapper/vdolvm | grep -B6 'saving percent'
  physical blocks                     : 10485760
  logical blocks                      : 31457280
  1K-blocks                           : 41943040
  1K-blocks used                      : 4219792
  1K-blocks available                 : 37723248
  used percent                        : 10
  saving percent                      : N/A

Here we see the same basic data we got from vdostats, but in a different format.

Step 4: Use the VDO Volume as a Normal Disk Device

Now that we have our VDO device created, we can partition it and put a filesystem on the partition, or as we will do in this demonstration, put an LVM2 Volume Group on top of it [1]. The specifics of creating a Volume Group are out of scope for this demonstration, so we will move quickly through to the parts that are more pertinent.

[1] Note that in this example, we are putting an LVM Volume Group on top of a VDO volume. Although this will work just fine, especially for standard Logical Volumes, it is not technically supported. A better way would be to create a VG on the disk/partition itself, and then put a VDO volume on top of an LV. See this article for more details:

# pvcreate /dev/mapper/vdolvm
  Physical volume "/dev/mapper/vdolvm" successfully created.
# vgcreate vdovg /dev/mapper/vdolvm 
  Volume group "vdovg" successfully created

# vgdisplay vdovg
  --- Volume group ---
  VG Name               vdovg
  System ID             
  Format                lvm2
  Metadata Areas        1
  Metadata Sequence No  1
  VG Access             read/write
  VG Status             resizable
  MAX LV                0
  Cur LV                0
  Open LV               0
  Max PV                0
  Cur PV                1
  Act PV                1
  VG Size               <120.00 GiB
  PE Size               4.00 MiB
  Total PE              30719
  Alloc PE / Size       0 / 0   
  Free  PE / Size       30719 / <120.00 GiB
  VG UUID               RlWiOw-5eZ2-lOsc-FSS3-c8xp-jvFh-m22o7p

As you can see above, LVM2 thinks that our underlying disk is 120GB, even though we know it is only 40GB large. Since LVM2 has no idea what the size of the VDO back-end disk is, it is currently up to the system administrator to manage the disk capacity and ensure that the back-end disk does not fill up. In the event that the back-end disk does fill up with unique data, the LVM2 Logical Volumes will go offline.

Now let’s create three equally-sized Logical Volumes:

# lvcreate -n vdolv01 -L 35G vdovg
  Logical volume "vdolv01" created.
# lvcreate -n vdolv02 -L 35G vdovg
  Logical volume "vdolv02" created.
# lvcreate -n vdolv03 -L 35G vdovg
  Logical volume "vdolv03" created.

Throughout the LVM2 Volume Group and Logical Volume creation, there is nothing at all that is different than using an actual 120GB device. You can even put a Thin Provision (ThP) pool and volumes on a VDO device, but we will not discuss that in this demonstration.

Step 5: Create and Mount Filesystems

Normally, when a filesystem is created, it runs a trim operation on the device. When using VDO, this is not ideal since the disk capacity is allocated on-demand. So we want to tell mkfs to not discard blocks during filesystem creation. For XFS, use the -K option, and for EXT4, use “-E nodiscard”. In our demo, we will use XFS.

# mkfs.xfs -K /dev/vdovg/vdolv01 
meta-data=/dev/vdovg/vdolv01     isize=512    agcount=4, agsize=2293760 blks
         =                       sectsz=4096  attr=2, projid32bit=1
         =                       crc=1        finobt=0, sparse=0
data     =                       bsize=4096   blocks=9175040, imaxpct=25
         =                       sunit=0      swidth=0 blks
naming   =version 2              bsize=4096   ascii-ci=0 ftype=1
log      =internal log           bsize=4096   blocks=4480, version=2
         =                       sectsz=4096  sunit=1 blks, lazy-count=1
realtime =none                   extsz=4096   blocks=0, rtextents=0

# mkfs.xfs -K /dev/vdovg/vdolv02
# mkfs.xfs -K /dev/vdovg/vdolv03

When we mount the new filesystems to their mount points, we want to tell XFS to discard blocks, since this will greatly speed up file deletion.

# mount -o discard /dev/vdovg/vdolv01 /data/01
# mount -o discard /dev/vdovg/vdolv02 /data/02
# mount -o discard /dev/vdovg/vdolv03 /data/03

And now that we have written just a tiny bit of filesystem data to the devices, we can inspect the VDO volume again to see if things have changed.

# vdostats --hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      4.0G     36.0G  10%           98%

And sure enough, we can see now that our “Space saving%” has shot up to 98%! That’s a good start, but remember that all we have done so far is to write a tiny bit of filesystem metadata three times – one for each Logical Volume. That data is identical, so it deduplicates very well, driving up our savings.

Step 6: Put Some Data on the Filesystems and Inspect the VDO Volume

Now let’s put some data on the VDO volume and see what happens. Since this is a demonstration of deduplication technology, we will intentionally be using multiple copies of the same file to ensure that there is redundant data to deduplicate. Let’s use a copy of our favourite Linux distro, CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso!

# cp /root/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso /data/01/
# df -h | grep data
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/01
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv02   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/02
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv03   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/03

Not surprisingly, the ‘df’ output shows that the first file system is now using 4.4GB of space. But what about vdostats?

# vdostats –hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      8.2G     31.8G  20%            3%

Now we see that the VDO back-end disk is using 8.2GB to store a file that is about 4.3GB large. That’s not such a great return for all of this work! But remember from before that VDO started with 10%, or 4GB, overhead, and now we have added another 4.3GB. This tells us that VDO is working since the 4.3GB file is only using 4.2GB of space!

Let’s copy more redundant data and see how things change. To prove that VDO works across filesystems that are in the same Volume Group, we will copy the same file to /data/02.

# cp /root/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso /data/02/
# df -h | grep data
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/01
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv02   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/02
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv03   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/03
# vdostats –hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      8.2G     31.8G  20%           51%

That’s better! Now we can see from ‘df’ that two filesystems are both storing 4.3GB each, but the amount of space used on the VDO back-end disk has stayed at 8.2GB. All of this work is starting to pay off! Let’s do it again!

# cp /root/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso /data/03/
# df -h | grep data
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/01
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv02   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/02
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv03   35G  4.4G   31G  13% /data/03
# vdostats --hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      8.2G     31.8G  20%           67%

With the same data now on three different filesystems on the same VDO volume, we can see that we are storing about 13GB of data across three filesystems, but only using 8.2GB. This gives us effective space savings of 67%.

But what happens when we delete the data? Let’s try!

# rm -f /data/*/CentOS-7-x86_64-DVD-1810.iso
# df -h | grep data
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/01
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv02   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/02
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv03   35G   33M   35G   1% /data/03
# vdostats –hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      8.2G     31.8G  20%           64%

Here we can see that deleting the data from the filesystem did not remove it from the back-end disk, so we are still using 8.2GB of storage to store about 4GB of VDO metadata. When we deleted the files from the filesystem, VDO only deleted the pointers to the deduplicated blocks, which are still on the back-end storage. If we were to copy the same ISO file again, our used capacity in vdostats would not increase. But, if we copied a different file that had nothing in common with the original ISO, then we could end up storing even more data for that new data.

Clearly, this is not ideal.

To reclaim the capacity that has been orphaned by deleting the files, we use the command fstrim. The basic syntax is just ‘fstrim <mountpoint>’, but since we are dealing with multiple mount points and fstrim won’t allow us to use wildcards, we run it through a little script:

# for i in `ls /data/`; do
> echo "Trimming /data/$i"
> fstrim /data/$i
> done
Trimming /data/01
Trimming /data/02
Trimming /data/03

And now we see that our capacity on the VDO back-end volume has been reclaimed.

# vdostats –hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      4.0G     36.0G  10%           98%

Since it’s no fun to manually monitor vdostats and run fstrim, and since fstrim takes a while to run on each filesystem, this is the kind of thing you want to throw into cron or an external scheduler to run once a day or so, depending on how often files are deleted.

Step 7: Fill Up the File systems!

Why would we do this? We already know that copying the same file over and over again will not use more space, right? Our reasons are two-fold: 1) to prove that hypothesis true or false, and 2) because taking things to the extreme is more fun!

After using a quick little script to copy the same data a bunch of times, we can see the filesystems are quite nearly full.

# df -h | grep data
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01   35G   35G  783M  98% /data/01
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv02   35G   35G  783M  98% /data/02
/dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv03   35G   35G  783M  98% /data/03

But what about the VDO back-end disk?

# vdostats –hu
Device                    Size      Used Available Use% Space saving%
/dev/mapper/vdolvm       40.0G      8.3G     31.7G  20%           95%

We see that we are still storing over 100GB of data using a mere 8.3GB of actual disk space on a 40GB disk. Why 8.3GB instead of 8.2GB like when we were storing only three copies of the data? The UDI is a metadata database, so the more data that is stored on the filesystems, the more chunks, or slabs, of data need to be managed. This is the cause of the increase of around 100MB on the VDO back-end disk.

Step 8: The Boring (But IMPORTANT!) Stuff

As we said at the beginning, if you follow the guide above, you will have a nice new VDO volume working… until you reboot! Assuming you have put the filesystems built on the VDO volume into your /etc/fstab as you would a normal volume, you will be saddened to realize that when you reboot, you are left at the emergency mode prompt.

(NOTE: If you skipped this part before and find yourself at the emergency prompt, simply comment out the entries for the VDO filesystems in /etc/fstab and then reboot.)

The problem with a normal /etc/fstab entry is that the filesystems try to mount before the vdo.service has started. There are multiple ways around this, including adding ‘x-systemd.requires=vdo.service’ to the mount options in /etc/fstab. However, those options do not help with shutdown order, so you will likely experience hangs and maybe even unclean filesystems when rebooting. Therefore, we will create a systemd mount for the VDO based filesystems, which provides a better mechanism for boot and shutdown order.

# vi /etc/systemd/system/data-01.mount
# cat /etc/systemd/system/data-01.mount

Description = Mount VDO file system on /data/01
Requires = vdo.service systemd-remount-fs.service
After = vdo.service
Conflicts = 

What = /dev/vdovg/vdolv01
Where = /data/01
Type = xfs
Options = discard

WantedBy =

# systemctl daemon-reload

Using the example above, you will need to modify the filename as well as the What= and Where= fields. In short, this file will ensure that the mount point will only be mounted after vdo.service and Likewise, it will be unmounted before and vdo.service during the shutdown.

Now, you can mount and unmount the filesystem just as you would start and stop a service.

# systemctl status data-01.mount
● data-01.mount - Mount VDO file system on /data/01
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/data-01.mount; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: inactive (dead) since Tue 2018-12-18 15:03:57 EST; 8s ago
    Where: /data/01
     What: /dev/vdovg/vdolv01
  Process: 6092 ExecUnmount=/bin/umount /data/01 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 3918 ExecMount=/bin/mount /dev/vdovg/vdolv01 /data/01 -t xfs -o discard (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)

# systemctl start data-01.mount

# systemctl status data-01.mount
● data-01.mount - Mount VDO file system on /data/01
   Loaded: loaded (/etc/systemd/system/data-01.mount; enabled; vendor preset: disabled)
   Active: active (mounted) since Tue 2018-12-18 15:04:10 EST; 2s ago
    Where: /data/01
     What: /dev/mapper/vdovg-vdolv01
  Process: 6092 ExecUnmount=/bin/umount /data/01 (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)
  Process: 6101 ExecMount=/bin/mount /dev/vdovg/vdolv01 /data/01 -t xfs -o discard (code=exited, status=0/SUCCESS)


We have seen how to install and perform a basic configuration of VDO on LVM2 on CentOS7. VDO provides native deduplication for Linux, reducing required storage capacity by eliminating redundant data from a sub-file level. Although VDO is surprisingly easy to use, it requires monitoring to ensure the back-end devices do not fill up, and it also requires special boot and shutdown order to ensure the server does not fail to boot.

8 thoughts on “Installing and Configuring Virtual Data Optimizer (VDO) on CentOS7

  1. “VDO volumes are not integrated with LVM2 yet. Thus it may be desirable to use them with LVM below as well as above them.”

    Agreed – the point is that the use of RAID in general (including LVM RAID) or thinpools (including LVM thin volumes) is not a good idea / supported. However, the use of LVM where volumes are just abstractions of the underlying logical block device(s) is fine. To say that “LVM is not supported” is not strictly true.

  2. Ilya,

    The reference to LVM on VDO not being supported is here [1], specifically this line:

    “The following configurations are not supported:

    RAID (LVM RAID, MD RAID, or any other type) on top of a VDO volume”.

    As I said in my response to Sun, it’s “likely the lack of support is due to certain features of LVM like Thin Provisioning [or LVM RAID] which would not be ideal on a VDO volume”.

    Having said that, standard LVM volumes without RAID or ThP are probably fine and I’ve used them myself with great success, though I certainly think support would be a grey area where you should be careful.


  3. No where does it say an LVM volume on top of VDO is not supported. What it is saying is that, to make your life easier, VDO on a volume that scales is preferable. This is because you have to guess-timate how much dedup you are going to get out of VDO up front.

  4. Hi, Sun,

    In fact, the VDO device can be a partition, but it is not supported to have LVM on top of a VDO volume, as I’ve done in this guide. Likely the lack of support is due to certain features of LVM like Thin Provisioning which would not be ideal on a VDO volume. This feature, however, is not used in this guide.

    I have, nonetheless, updated the text to include the link you provided to the documentation as well as indicating that what we do in this guide is not supported and I also offer a better alternative that is.

    Thanks for your comment!

  5. I found vdo device can’t be partition:

    The following configurations are not supported:

    VDO on top of VDO volumes: storage → VDO → LVM → VDO
    VDO on top of LVM snapshots
    VDO on top of LVM cache
    VDO on top of a loopback device
    VDO on top of LVM thin provisioning
    Encrypted volumes on top of VDO: storage → VDO → DM-Crypt
    Partitions on a VDO volume
    RAID (LVM RAID, MD RAID, or any other type) on top of a VDO volume

    Is it an error in step 4?”Now that we have our VDO device created, we can partition it and put a filesystem on the partition”

  6. Hey, I’m using RHEL 8 and I cannot get past step 2 when creating a vdo volume. I’m getting an error:

    vdo: ERROR – Kernel module kvdo not installed
    vdo: ERROR – modprobe: FATAL: Module kvdo not found in directory /lib/modules/4.18.0-80.4.2.el8_0.x86_64

    1. Hi, James,

      I had a similar error once when my running kernel and my installed kernel didn’t match. For example, imagine installing RHEL8 from ISO/DVD, then running ‘dnf update’ without a reboot. It’s quite possible that the modules for your running kernel are no longer available/relevant for the functioning of VDO.

      I suspect you’re running kernel version 4.18.0-80.4.2.el8_0 (check with uname -a), but that the VDO kernel module that was installed in Step 1 is newer than that.

      A reboot onto the kernel version that matches the VDO kernel module should fix your problem!

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